The Stroke Prognosis Instrument II (SPI-II) Academic Article uri icon

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  • Background and Purpose —In 1991 we developed the Stroke Prognosis Instrument (SPI-I) to stratify patients with transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke by prognosis for stroke or death in 2 years. In this article we validate and improve SPI-I (creating SPI-II). Methods —To validate SPI-I, we applied it to 4 test cohorts and calculated pooled outcome rates. To create SPI-II, we incorporated new predictive variables identified in 1 of the test cohorts and validated it in the other 3 cohorts. Results —For SPI-I, pooled rates (all 4 test cohorts) of stroke or death within 2 years in risk groups I, II, and III were 9%, 17%, and 24%, respectively ( P <0.01, log-rank test). SPI-II was created by adding congestive heart failure and prior stroke to SPI-I. Each patient’s risk group was determined by the total score for 7 factors: congestive heart failure (3 points); diabetes (3 points); prior stroke (3 points); age >70 years (2 points); stroke for the index event (not transient ischemic attack) (2 points); hypertension (1 point); and coronary artery disease (1 point). Risk groups I, II, and III comprised patients with 0 to 3, 4 to 7, and 8 to 15 points, respectively. For SPI-I, pooled rates (3 cohorts excluding the SPI-II development cohort) of stroke or death within 2 years in risk groups I, II, and III were 9%, 17%, and 23%, respectively. For SPI-II, pooled rates were 10%, 19%, and 31%, respectively. In receiver operator characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.60) for SPI-I and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.65) for SPI-II, confirming the better performance of the latter. Conclusions —Compared with SPI-I, SPI-II achieves greater discrimination in outcome rates among risk groups. SPI-II is ready for use in research design and may have a role in patient counseling.


  • Kernan, Walter N
  • Viscoli, Catherine M
  • Brass, Lawrence M
  • Makuch, Robert W
  • Sarrel, Philip M
  • Roberts, Robin Sydney
  • Gent, Michael
  • Rothwell, Peter
  • Sacco, Ralph L
  • Liu, Ruei-Che
  • Boden-Albala, Bernadette
  • Horwitz, Ralph I

publication date

  • February 2000

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