Contextual influences of parenting behaviors for children with neurodevelopmental disorders: results from a Canadian national survey
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PURPOSE: This population-based study examined correlates of three parenting behaviors (positive interactions, consistency, and ineffective parenting) that have been shown to differ in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), with and without externalizing behavior problems (EBPs), as compared to children with neither condition. METHOD: The sample of children aged 4-11 (N = 14,226) was drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Analyses examined the associations of child, parental, and social context factors with parenting behaviors, and whether they differed by child health group. RESULTS: Child age, family functioning, and social support variables were significant predictors of all three parenting behaviors. Significant interaction effects highlight the importance of the child's sex, birth order, and support received from community or social service professionals, and that these factors have differential impacts on parenting behaviors depending on the child's health group. CONCLUSIONS: Other Child, parent, and social context factors are associated with parenting behaviors but these associations vary by the child's health group. Parenting behaviors differ for children with NDDs with and without EBPs. These findings offer important implications for practice and research and point to the importance of considering multiple contexts of influence, as well as their interactions, in understanding differences in parenting behaviors.
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