Sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations in children: a scoping review
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PURPOSE: This scoping review assesses the literature and summarizes the current evidence on sclerotherapy for the treatment of lymphatic malformations in pediatric patients. METHODS: A comprehensive search of published and unpublished literature was conducted using multiple databases. Title, abstract, and full-text screening was conducted by 2 independent clinicians. All discrepancies were resolved during consensus meetings. RESULTS: A total of 182 articles were retrieved. Forty-four articles were removed as duplicates, and 11 articles were added after reviewing prominent studies. After full-text abstraction, 44 articles and 2 conference proceedings (N = 882 patients) were included in the final results. Twelve articles were classified as level II and 34 articles as level IV evidence. Picibanil (OK-432) was the primary agent used in most included studies. Postinjection symptoms with OK-432 were primarily fever, swelling, and erythema at the site. Life-threatening complications were uncommon and involved postinjection swelling of cervical lesions causing airway compromise. CONCLUSIONS: The literature regarding sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations is of a low level of evidence and suffers from a lack of standardization. Randomized clinical trials focused on OK-432, bleomycin, or alcoholic solution of zein; standardized dosing protocols; and consistent and reliable outcome reporting will be necessary for further development of treatment guidelines.
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