New Density Functional Approach for Solid-Liquid-Vapor Transitions in Pure Materials
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A new phase field crystal (PFC) type theory is presented, which accounts for the full spectrum of solid-liquid-vapor phase transitions within the framework of a single density order parameter. Its equilibrium properties show the most quantitative features to date in PFC modeling of pure substances, and full consistency with thermodynamics in pressure-volume-temperature space is demonstrated. A method to control either the volume or the pressure of the system is also introduced. Nonequilibrium simulations show that 2- and 3-phase growth of solid, vapor, and liquid can be achieved, while our formalism also allows for a full range of pressure-induced transformations. This model opens up a new window for the study of pressure driven interactions of condensed phases with vapor, an experimentally relevant paradigm previously missing from phase field crystal theories.
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