Phase II trial of vorinostat in advanced melanoma
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INTRODUCTION: Vorinostat is a small molecule inhibitor of class I and II histone deacetylases with preclinical activity in melanoma. METHODS: We evaluated 32 patients with advanced primary cutaneous or ocular melanoma in a multi-institutional setting (PMH Phase II Consortium) with continuous daily oral vorinostat 400 mg. The primary endpoint was response rate by RECIST, with time to progression as a secondary endpoint. The study was designed to distinguish a response rate of 20 % from a RR of 5 % and to distinguish a 2 month median progression-free survival (PFS), from one of 3.1 months. The study proceeded to stage 2 following 2 of 16 responses.. We also assessed VEGF, FGF levels, P52 polymorphisms and chromatin-associated proteins as potential biomarkers. RESULTS: Therapy was associated with significant side effects, including fatigue, nausea, lymphopenia, and hyperglycemia. Eleven patients experienced at least one grade 3 or higher adverse event. There were two confirmed PRs in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Sixteen patients had stable disease and 14 patients had progressive disease for best response. In addition, two patients with cutaneous melanoma scored as stable disease had early unconfirmed partial responses with subsequent progression. Patients with stable disease or partial response (n = 18) had a median progression free survival of 5 months. (range 2-12 months). CONCLUSIONS: Vorinostat demonstrated some early responses and a high proportion of patients with stable disease, but did not meet its primary endpoint of response. Different schedules of this agent with BRAF mutation status and markers of histone acetylation could be explored in melanoma.
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