L-glutamine with D-glucose stimulates oxidative metabolism and NaCl absorption in piglet jejunum
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To explore the relationship between intestinal fluid absorption and oxidative metabolism, we measured the effects of amino acids and glucose on piglet jejunal ion transport and oxygen consumption (QO2) in vitro. Jejunal QO2 was stimulated by L-glutamine and D-glucose but not by the nonmetabolizable organic solutes methyl beta-D-glucoside or L-phenylalanine. QO2 was maximally enhanced by the combination of D-glucose and L-glutamine (5 mM). Even though 5 mM L-glutamine was previously found to be insufficient to stimulate NaCl absorption, 5 mM L-glutamine enhanced jejunal NaCl flux when combined with equimolar mucosal D-glucose. Either D-glucose or methyl beta-D-glucoside caused an increase in short-circuit current (Isc), an increase in Na+ absorption in excess of Isc, and a decrease in Cl- secretion, when L-glutamine was substituted for D-glucose (10 mM) on the serosal side. This relationship suggests that mucosal sugars, if combined with L-glutamine, enhance neutral NaCl absorption as well as electrogenic Na+ flow. (Aminooxy)acetate, an inhibitor of alanine aminotransferase, abolished the stimulation of QO2 and the NaCl-absorptive response to L-glutamine. We conclude that the oxidative metabolism fueled by L-glutamine is linked to a NaCl-absorptive mechanism in the intestine. We propose that the CO2 produced by glutamine metabolism yields carbonic acid, which dissociates to H+ and HCO3-, which may stimulate parallel antiports in the apical membrane.
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