- To determine the importance of Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) as pediatric pathogens in a developing country, the seroprevalence and seroincidence of this group of viruses in a cohort of children less than 4 years of age in an urban shantytown in northeastern Brazil was examined. Serum samples were collected approximately every 6 months from 135 children who were surveyed three times each week for diarrhea and vomiting. NLV IgG was measured by an enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) with recombinant Norwalk virus capsid protein. Overall NLV seroprevalence was 71%, and the overall NLV seroconversion rate was 0.7 seroconversions per child-year. The highest age-specific NLV seroconversion rate (0.8 seroconversions per child-year) was observed in the 13-24-month age group. For all study children, the incidence of diarrhea and vomiting was significantly greater (P < 0.01) during time periods spanned by serum pairs that indicated NLV seroconversion compared with time periods without NLV seroconversion. However, NLV seroconversion was not associated with gastrointestinal symptoms during the first year of life.