A Novel and Rapid Whole-Blood Assay for D-Dimer in Patients With Clinically Suspected Deep Vein Thrombosis
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BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of using a novel whole blood assay for D-dimer (SimpliRED), alone or in combination with impedance plethysmography (IPG), was investigated in a two-center, prospective cohort study of 214 consecutive patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients underwent the SimpliRED D-dimer assay, contrast venography, and IPG. According to the results of venography, 43 patients had proximal DVT (popliteal and/or more proximal veins), 10 had isolated calf DVT, and 161 had DVT ruled out. The D-dimer had a sensitivity of 93% for proximal DVT and of 70% for calf DVT, an overall specificity of 77%, and a negative predictive value of 98% for proximal DVT. The sensitivity and specificity of IPG for proximal DVT were 67% and 96%, respectively. When analyzed in combination with the IPG results, it was determined that (1) the combination of a negative D-dimer and a normal IPG had a negative predictive value of 97% for all DVT and of 99% for proximal DVT and occurred in 58% of patients (likelihood ratio, 0.1) and (2) the combination of a positive D-dimer and an abnormal IPG had a positive predictive value of 93% for any DVT and of 90% for proximal DVT and occurred in 14% of patients (likelihood ratio, 42.6). When the D-dimer and IPG results were discordant, it was not possible to exclude or diagnose DVT reliably; discordant results occurred in 28% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The SimpliRED D-dimer assay, which can be performed and interpreted at the bedside within 5 minutes, has great potential in patients with clinically suspected DVT, especially for ruling out DVT, and is complementary to IPG. The assay should be evaluated in large clinical management studies.
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