Molecular Basis for the Susceptibility of Fibrin-bound Thrombin to Inactivation by Heparin Cofactor II in the Presence of Dermatan Sulfate but Not Heparin
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Although fibrin-bound thrombin is resistant to inactivation by heparin.antithrombin and heparin.heparin cofactor II complexes, indirect studies in plasma systems suggest that the dermatan sulfate.heparin cofactor II complex can inhibit fibrin-bound thrombin. Herein we demonstrate that fibrin monomer produces a 240-fold decrease in the heparin-catalyzed rate of thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II but reduces the dermatan sulfate-catalyzed rate only 3-fold. The protection of fibrin-bound thrombin from inhibition by heparin.heparin cofactor II reflects heparin-mediated bridging of thrombin to fibrin that results in the formation of a ternary heparin.thrombin.fibrin complex. This complex, formed as a result of three binary interactions (thrombin.fibrin, thrombin.heparin, and heparin.fibrin), limits accessibility of heparin-catalyzed inhibitors to thrombin and induces conformational changes at the active site of the enzyme. In contrast, dermatan sulfate binds to thrombin but does not bind to fibrin. Although a ternary dermatan sulfate. thrombin.fibrin complex forms, without dermatan sulfate-mediated bridging of thrombin to fibrin, only two binary interactions exist (thrombin.fibrin and thrombin. dermatan sulfate). Consequently, thrombin remains susceptible to inactivation by heparin cofactor II. This study explains why fibrin-bound thrombin is susceptible to inactivation by heparin cofactor II in the presence of dermatan sulfate but not heparin.
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