Increased oxidative stress in submitochondrial particles after chronic amphetamine exposure
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Previous studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may play a role in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). In addition, there is an emerging body of data indicating that BD and SCZ may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We studied the effects of acute and chronic d-amphetamine on ROS production in submitochondrial particles of rat brain. Male Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: acute and chronic treatment. In the acute treatment, rats received one single IP injection of d-amphetamine (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg) or saline (control group). In the chronic treatment, rats received one daily IP injection of d-amphetamine (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg) or saline for 7 days. Locomotor activity was assessed with the open field task, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and superoxide production were measured in submitochondrial particles of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Both acute and chronic amphetamine treatment increased locomotor behavior. Chronic amphetamine exposure induced a 3- to 6-fold increase of TBARS and a 1.5- to 2-fold increase of superoxide production in submitochondrial particles of prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (P < 0.05). No effects on superoxide or TBARS were observed with acute treatment. These findings suggest that amphetamine-induced mitochondrial ROS generation may be a useful model to investigate the hypothesis of altered brain energy metabolism associated with BD and SCZ. Further studies assessing the effects of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics in preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress are necessary.
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