TNF-α as a molecular target in bipolar disorder
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The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is poorly understood. An emerging body of evidence points to impairments in neuroplasticity, cell resilience and neuronal survival as the main neuropathological correlates of BD. It has been suggested that inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-alpha may play a critical role in this process. In the present review we examine the evidence suggesting that TNF-alpha regulates apoptotic cascades which may be related to neuronal and glial loss in BD. Current evidence suggests that an increase in serum levels of TNF-alpha takes place during manic and depressive episodes. The present article reviews the therapeutic implications of TNF-alpha signaling pathways involvement in the pathophysiology of BD.
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