Predictors of psychiatric readmission among patients with bipolar disorder at an academic safety-net hospital
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OBJECTIVE: Even with treatment, approximately one-third of patients with bipolar disorder relapse into depression or mania within 1 year. Unfavorable clinical outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder include increased rates of psychiatric hospitalization and functional impairment. However, only a few studies have examined predictors of psychiatric hospital readmission in a sample of patients with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of psychiatric readmission within 30 days, 90 days and 1 year of discharge among patients with bipolar disorder using a conceptual model adapted from Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use. METHODS: In this retrospective study, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted in a sample of 2443 adult patients with bipolar disorder who were consecutively admitted to a public psychiatric hospital in the United States from 1 January to 31 December 2013. RESULTS: In the multivariate models, several enabling and need factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of readmission across all time periods examined, including being uninsured, having ⩾3 psychiatric hospitalizations and having a lower Global Assessment of Functioning score. Additional factors associated with psychiatric readmission within 30 and 90 days of discharge included patient homelessness. Patient race/ethnicity, bipolar disorder type or a current manic episode did not significantly predict readmission across all time periods examined; however, patients who were male were more likely to readmit within 1 year. The 30-day and 1-year multivariate models showed the best model fit. CONCLUSION: Our study found enabling and need factors to be the strongest predictors of psychiatric readmission, suggesting that the prevention of psychiatric readmission for patients with bipolar disorder at safety-net hospitals may be best achieved by developing and implementing innovative transitional care initiatives that address the issues of multiple psychiatric hospitalizations, housing instability, insurance coverage and functional impairment.
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