Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: Predictors of Complications and Length of Hospital Stay
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BACKGROUND: The primary objective of the study was to determine factors associated with complications and length of hospital stay (LOS) in hospitalized adult patients with diabetes along with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). CAP is a common infection in patients with diabetes mellitus and is associated with a significant mortality and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 215 adult patients with diabetes who were admitted with CAP. A multivariate logistic and Cox regression analysis were used to assess factors associated with complications and LOS of CAP, respectively. RESULTS: During the follow-up period from admission until discharge, 94 patients (43.7%) developed complications. Respiratory failure was the most common complication (43.6%). The average LOS of study cohort was 9.47 days. In the multivariate analysis, complications of CAP were associated with time to first dose of appropriate antibiotic therapy >8 hours since triage at emergency department (ED) (odds ratio = 3.16; 95% CI: 1.58-6.32; P = 0.001) and pneumonia severity index score >90 (odds ratio = 3.52; 95% CI: 1.45-8.53; P = 0.005). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, time to first dose of appropriate antibiotic therapy >8 hours since triage at ED (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56, P = 0.01), pneumonia severity index score >90 (HR = 0.62, P = 0.01), presence of complications (HR = 0.53, P = 0.002), duration of antibiotics (HR = 0.90, P ≤ 0.0001) and duration of symptoms prior presentation to ED (HR = 0.96, P = 0.04) were independently determinants of LOS. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy at ED and moderate-to-severe pneumonia were associated with both increased risk of complications and prolonged LOS in hospitalized adult patients with diabetes along with CAP.
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