Cardiovascular Outcomes in Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes: Impact of Blood Pressure Level and Presence of Kidney Disease
- Additional Document Info
- View All
BACKGROUND: Persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent a population prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD) but vulnerable to adverse medication effects. We assessed the impact of intensive antihypertensive therapy on the cerebrovascular and other CVD outcomes in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes and baseline CKD. METHODS: Using current guideline criteria, 1,726 (36.9%) of 4,678 participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) blood pressure (BP) arm had mild to moderate CKD (CKD1-3B) at baseline. Participants of this study were randomized to intensive (systolic <120 mm Hg) or standard (systolic <140 mm Hg) BP goals. Fatal and non-fatal stroke were pre-specified secondary outcomes of the ACCORD study. RESULTS: Total cerebrovascular events were significantly higher in participants with baseline CKD (0.66%/year) compared with participants free of CKD (0.28%/year). A significantly higher rate of events was observed in CKD participants. Intensive antihypertensive therapy in participants without CKD at baseline resulted in a 55% significant reduction of any stroke (hazard ratio 0.447; 95% CI 0.227-0.880) and a 50% reduction of non-fatal stroke (hazard ratio 0.498; 95% CI 0.250-0.993). In participants with CKD at baseline, the occurrence of any stroke was reduced by 38% (hazard ratio 0.623; 95% CI 0.361-1.074) and non-fatal stroke by 36% (hazard ratio 0.642; 95% CI 0.361-1.142). Test for interaction was NS between the 2 groups. Changes in other CVD outcomes did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that intensive antihypertensive therapy offers significant cerebrovascular protection in diabetic participants without CKD at baseline, but significant benefit to patients with CKD cannot be excluded.
has subject area