Selection of Outcome Measures for Patients With Hip Fracture
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In designing a study protocol relating to hip fracture treatment and outcomes, it is important to select appropriate outcome instruments. Before beginning the process of instrument selection, investigators must gain a comprehensive understanding of the condition of interest and have a thorough knowledge of the expected benefits and harms of the proposed intervention. Adequate evidence of an intervention's effectiveness includes indication of impact on the patient's health. We provide a brief discussion about different ways that health and health measurement have been defined, including the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and cost-to-benefit analyses. We outline important properties (reliability, validity, sensitivity to change, and responsiveness) that a measurement instrument must demonstrate before being considered an acceptable means to measure outcome. Potential outcome measures relevant to patients with hip fracture are summarized, and important points to consider in the selection of outcome measures for a hypothetical research question in a hip fracture population are discussed.