Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody is an established marker in the diagnosis and prognostication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Infrequently, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients also develop a deforming erosive arthritis, similar to that of RA. Our objective was to determine whether anti-CCP antibody is a useful marker of erosive disease in SLE patients presenting with arthritis.
Electronic databases EMBASE, MEDLINE and non-indexed MEDLINE citations were searched through April 11, 2014, using the outlined key terms. Studies meeting predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of included articles using previously described criteria. The DerSimonian-Laird random effects model was used to calculate pooled sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP antibody for erosive arthritis in SLE.
Seven articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 609 SLE patients with arthritis were identified, 70 of whom had erosive disease. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP antibody for erosive arthritis was 47.8% (95% CI, 26.2%–70.2%) and 91.8% (95% CI, 78.4%–97.2%), respectively.
Our findings suggest that anti-CCP antibody is a highly specific marker for erosive arthritis in SLE. Longitudinal prospective studies are needed to determine if anti-CCP antibody can be used as a predictor of erosive disease.