Caloric Restriction Shortens Lifespan through an Increase in Lipid Peroxidation, Inflammation and Apoptosis in the G93A Mouse, an Animal Model of ALS
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Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan through a reduction in oxidative stress, delays the onset of morbidity and prolongs lifespan. We previously reported that long-term CR hastened clinical onset, disease progression and shortened lifespan, while transiently improving motor performance in G93A mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that shows increased free radical production. To investigate the long-term CR-induced pathology in G93A mice, we assessed the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and oxidative capacity (CS--citrate synthase content and activity, cytochrome c oxidase--COX activity and protein content of COX subunit-I and IV and UCP3-uncoupling protein 3), oxidative damage (MDA--malondialdehyde and PC--protein carbonyls), antioxidant enzyme capacity (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase), inflammation (TNF-alpha), stress response (Hsp70) and markers of apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9, cleaved caspase 9) in their skeletal muscle. At age 40 days, G93A mice were divided into two groups: Ad libitum (AL; n = 14; 7 females) or CR (n = 13; 6 females), with a diet equal to 60% of AL. COX/CS enzyme activity was lower in CR vs. AL male quadriceps (35%), despite a 2.3-fold higher COX-IV/CS protein content. UCP3 was higher in CR vs. AL females only. MnSOD and Cu/Zn-SOD were higher in CR vs. AL mice and CR vs. AL females. MDA was higher (83%) in CR vs. AL red gastrocnemius. Conversely, PC was lower in CR vs. AL red (62%) and white (30%) gastrocnemius. TNF-alpha was higher (52%) in CR vs. AL mice and Hsp70 was lower (62%) in CR vs. AL quadriceps. Bax was higher in CR vs. AL mice (41%) and CR vs. AL females (52%). Catalase, Bcl-2 and caspases did not differ. We conclude that CR increases lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis, while decreasing mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency, protein oxidation and stress response in G93A mice.