# Incorporating quotation and evaluation into Church's type theory Academic Article

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### abstract

• ${\rm CTT}_{\rm qe}$ is a version of Church's type theory that includes quotation and evaluation operators that are similar to quote and eval in the Lisp programming language. With quotation and evaluation it is possible to reason in ${\rm CTT}_{\rm qe}$ about the interplay of the syntax and semantics of expressions and, as a result, to formalize syntax-based mathematical algorithms. We present the syntax and semantics of ${\rm CTT}_{\rm qe}$ as well as a proof system for ${\rm CTT}_{\rm qe}$. The proof system is shown to be sound for all formulas and complete for formulas that do not contain evaluations. We give several examples that illustrate the usefulness of having quotation and evaluation in ${\rm CTT}_{\rm qe}$.

• June 2018