Factor VII deficiency: clinical manifestation of 717 subjects from Europe and Latin America with mutations in the factor 7 gene
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The congenital FVII deficiency (FVIID) is a rare haemorrhagic disorder with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Data on phenotype and the genotype from 717 subjects in Central Europe (six countries), Latin America (Costa Rica, Venezuela) and United States, enrolled in the Greifswald Registry of FVII Deficiency were analysed. We detected 131 different mutations in 73 homozygous, 145 compound heterozygous and 499 heterozygous subjects. Regional differences were observed in the mutation pattern and the clinical profile of the evaluated patients. Seventy-one per cent of homozygous and 50% of compound heterozygous subjects were symptomatic. The clinical manifestations of the homozygous subjects were characterized by intracranial haemorrhage (2%), gastrointestinal bleeding (17%), haemarthrosis (13%), epistaxis (58%), gum bleeding (38%), easy bruising (37%), haematoma (15%), haematuria (10%) and menorrhagia (19 of 26 females, 73%). The clinical variability and genotype-phenotype correlation was evaluated in the homozygous subjects. The pattern of bleeding symptoms among compound heterozygous patients was severe and similar to that of the homozygous patients. The large-scale analysis of 499 heterozygous subjects shows that 93 (19%) presented with spontaneous bleeding symptoms such as haemarthrosis (4%), epistaxis (54%), gum bleeding (14%), easy bruising (38%), haematoma (23%), haematuria (5%) and menorrhagia (19 of 45 females; 42%). The severe haemorrhages - intracranial and gastrointestinal - were not reported in heterozygous subjects. The clinical variability and the regional differences in the mutation pattern are discussed regarding care and treatment.
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