Combining oncolytic virotherapy and tumour vaccination
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The interactions between the immune system, a malignant tumour and an oncolytic virus are complex and poorly understood. For oncolytic viruses to become successful therapeutics we need to better understand these interactions and identify strategies to take advantage of defects in the innate immune response within tumours and avoid cellular anti-viral responses while capitalizing on anti-tumoural immunity. In this review we will discuss the evidence for the induction of tumour-specific immune responses by oncolytic viruses as well as by cancer vaccines. We will then describe some of the barriers to successful cancer immunotherapy, and finally we will outline a strategy for enhancing anti-tumoural immunity while reducing anti-viral immunity by combining tumour vaccination with oncolytic viral therapy.
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