Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status as Risk Factors for Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus Journal Articles uri icon

  • Overview
  • Research
  • Identity
  • Additional Document Info
  • View All


  • Barrett's esophagus is thought to be a disease occurring predominantly in White Caucasian males of higher socioeconomic status. There are no published studies simultaneously examining risk of Barrett's esophagus according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status within a single data set. The authors conducted a retrospective case-control analysis within a cross-sectional study to determine risk of Barrett's esophagus in relation to sociodemographic variables in a large United Kingdom population. All patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at two clinical centers between January 2000 and January 2003 were evaluated. Data on ethnicity, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and the presence of Barrett's esophagus and esophagitis at endoscopy were collected. A total of 20,310 patients were analyzed. Barrett's esophagus was more common in White Caucasians (401/14,095 (2.8%)) than in South Asians (16/5,190 (0.3%)) (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.56, 10.22), as was esophagitis (2,500/14,095 (17.7%) vs. 557/5,190 (10.7%); adjusted OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.57, 1.97). Patients with Barrett's esophagus were also more likely to be male (adjusted OR=2.70, 95% CI: 2.18, 3.35) and of higher socioeconomic status (adjusted OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.15 (top tertile vs. bottom tertile)). White Caucasian ethnicity, male gender, and higher socioeconomic status are independent risk factors for Barrett's esophagus.


  • Ford, Alexander C
  • Forman, David
  • Reynolds, P Dominic
  • Cooper, Brian T
  • Moayyedi, Paul

publication date

  • September 1, 2005