Although Candida albicans is the main cause of fungal esophagitis, other species such as C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. stellatoidea have also been implicated. Several studies have identified risk factors for C. albicans esophagitis. However, data for non-C. albicans species is still sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of Candida esophagitis in our medical centre over an 18-month period. Additionally, we aimed to investigate predisposing conditions for esophageal candidosis caused by different Candida species. A total of 21,248 upper gastroscopies were performed in Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar between January 2005 and July 2006. The prevalence of Candida esophagitis was 0.74% (n = 158). C. albicans caused the vast majority of infections (96.2%), followed by C. tropicalis (2.5%), C. lusitaniae (0.6%) and C. glabrata (0.6%). There were 81 women (51.3%) and 77 men (48.7%). No case of mixed infection occurred. Concomitant oral candidosis was documented for 10.8% (n = 17). Most of cases (55.1%) involved outpatients. Around one fifth of patients in our cohort had no identifiable risk factors for esophageal candidosis (20.8%). Since nearly all infections were caused by C. albicans we were not able to determine risk factors for esophagitis caused by other Candida species.