- BACKGROUND: Parvovirus B19 is a cause of delayed red blood cell (RBC) engraftment after marrow transplantation (BMT). The diagnosis of parvovirus infection requires serologic and DNA testing in the context of clinical disease and characteristic marrow morphologic findings; however, the source of infection is often difficult to determine. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Investigation of a case of delayed RBC engraftment and pure RBC aplasia (PRCA) occurring 3 months after autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation in a patient with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. DNA testing of serum and of a sample of cryopreserved PBPCs was performed. RESULTS: Marrow morphology showed a maturational arrest of erythroid cells with giant proerythroblasts. Polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization confirmed the presence of parvovirus DNA in the serum and in a sample of sequestered PBPCs saved at the time of PBPC harvest. PRCA resolved after the administration of intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSION: Autologous PBPCs are a potential source of parvovirus infection, which may cause significant disease after autologous BMT.