Outcome of children treated for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia in Central America
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BACKGROUND: Relapsed childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) outcomes have not been documented in resource-limited settings. We examined survival after relapse for children with AML (non-APML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) in Central America. PROCEDURE: We retrospectively evaluated outcomes of children with first relapse of AML (non-APML) and APML in Guatemala, Honduras, or El Salvador diagnosed between 1997 and 2011. Predictors of subsequent event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. RESULTS: We identified 140 children with relapsed AML (non-APML), and 24 with relapsed APML. Two-year subsequent EFS and OS (±SE) were 7.0 ± 2.5% and 9.1 ± 2.8%, respectively. Worse outcomes were associated with Hispanic or Indigenous heritage, white blood cell count at diagnosis ≥50 × 10(9) /L, and time to relapse <18 months. For those with relapsed APML, subsequent 2-year EFS and OS were 36.7 ± 10.8% and 43.4 ± 12.1%, although few patients survived beyond 3 years. 15.2% of all patients were managed solely with palliative intent following first relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Children with relapsed AML in Central America rarely survive, so palliative strategies should be considered following relapse in this population. However, children with late relapse or with APML may have a prolonged period of remission with second treatment, and consideration of re-treatment may be appropriate.
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