Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole pharmacokinetics during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).
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Ten adult patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) received one dose of trimethoprim-320 mg (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole 1600 mg (SMX) orally (p.o.), intravenously (i.v.), and intraperitoneally (i.p.) on three separate occasions to characterize the pharmacokinetics of both drugs. Concentrations of both TMP and SMX were measured in serum and dialysate by HPLC to 48 h. Half-life, total body clearance (TBC), and peritoneal clearance (PCl) were determined. The mean half-life of TMP was 28 h, while for SMX it was 12.5 h. Relative to the i.v. dose, the bioavailability following oral administration for TMP was 98% and 87% for SMX. Intraperitoneal bioavailability was 73% for TMP and 65% for SMX after a 4-h dwell. After 24 h, regardless of the route of administration, less than 3% of TMP and less than 6% of SMX appeared in dialysate. We conclude that peritoneal losses contribute insignificantly to TMP/SMX elimination during CAPD.
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