Non-invasive determination of transcatheter pressure gradient in stenotic aortic valves: An analytical model
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Aortic stenosis (AS), in which the opening of the aortic valve is narrowed, is the most common valvular heart disease. Cardiac catheterization is considered the reference standard for definitive evaluation of AS severity, based on instantaneous systolic value of transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG). However, using invasive cardiac catheterization might carry high risks knowing that undergoing multiple cardiac catheterizations for follow-up in patients with AS is common. The objective of this study was to suggest an analytical description of the AS that estimates TPG without a need for high risk invasive data collection. For this purpose, Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the elastic-deformation equation was solved analytically. The estimated TPG resulted from the suggested analytical description was validated against published in vivo and in vitro measurement data. Very good concordances were found between TPG obtained from the analytical formulation and in vivo (maximum root mean square error: 3.8 mmHg) and in vitro (maximum root mean square error: 9.4 mmHg). The analytical description can be integrated to non-invasive imaging modalities to estimate AS severity as an alternative to cardiac catheterization to help preventing its risks in patients with AS.
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