Role of glutamate receptor subtypes in the differential release of somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, and substance P in primary serum-free cultures of striatal neurons
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The spiny and aspiny neuronal populations of the striatum display differential vulnerability to the toxic effects of glutamatergic agonists. Substance P-containing spiny neurons appear to be more vulnerable to NMDA-receptor-mediated toxicity and less susceptible to kainate toxicity than the somatostatin- and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing aspiny population. We studied whether selective glutamatergic agonists might have similar differential effects on neuropeptide release from the substance P- and somatostatin/NPY-containing neuronal populations. After collection of a baseline sample, striatal neurons in primary culture were treated with one of the following: phosphate-buffered saline, 56 mM potassium chloride (KCl), 100 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 100 microM quisqualate, 100 microM kainate, or 100 microM glutamate. Baseline and treatment samples were measured by radioimmunoassay for somatostatin, NPY, and substance P. KCl and kainate provoked a selective release of somatostatin and NPY, whereas substance P measured in the same samples showed no response. By contrast, NMDA elicited a selective release of substance P without a similar increase of either somatostatin or NPY. Quisqualate evoked comparable responses in the three peptides. These results indicate that the glutamatergic regulation of somatostatin and NPY release from aspiny striatal neurons in primary culture is preferentially mediated by the kainate receptor, whereas substance P release is selectively mediated by the NMDA receptor. These findings suggest a preferential expression of functional kainate receptors on the aspiny somatostatin/NPY neurons and of NMDA receptors on the substance-P-containing spiny neurons.
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