Otolaryngology residency education: a scoping review on the shift towards competency-based medical education
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BACKGROUND: Residency training programmes worldwide are experiencing a shift from the traditional time-based curriculum to competency-based medical education (CBME), due to changes in the healthcare system that have impacted clinical learning opportunities. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OTL-HNS) programmes are one of the first North American surgical specialties to adopt the new CBME curriculum. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the literature pertaining to CBME in OTL-HNS programmes worldwide, to identify the tools that have been developed and identify potential barriers to the implementation of CBME. SEARCH STRATEGY: Four online databases, OVID MEDLINE (R) from 1946 to 5 August 2015, EMBASE 1974 to 5 August 2015, Cochrane and CINAHL databases up to 5 August 2015, were searched using key words related to OTL-HNS and CBME. EVALUATION METHOD: Two researchers independently reviewed the literature in a systematic manner and met to discuss and address any discrepancies at each step of the review process. RESULTS: Of the 207 publications identified in the initial search, 31 were included in this scoping review. Two key themes emerged from the literature: first, OTL-HNS programmes reported a need for new assessment tools that assess competency and also provide the learner with formative feedback. Second, although varieties of tools assessing both technical and non-technical skills have been developed, implementation of such tools has been met with some challenges. These challenges include a lack of faculty support, inadequate administrative support and a lack of knowledge on how to start the transition to CBME. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review suggests that task-specific checklists, entrustment scales, evaluation portfolios from multiple assessments and faculty training sessions are key aspects to incorporate as OTL-HNS training programmes shift towards a CBME curriculum.