Pixantrone (BBR 2778) has reduced cardiotoxic potential in mice pretreated with doxorubicin: Comparative studies against doxorubicin and mitoxantrone
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Multiple myeloma is a disease in which angiogenesis is postulated to be a target for therapy. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted a phase II trial of ZD6474 (Zactima; a VEGFR inhibitor) 100 mg p.o. daily in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response as assessed by reduction in M protein. There were 18 patients with a mean age of 64 years. One patient was ineligible and one was not evaluable. Overall, ZD6474 was well tolerated and pharmacokinetic testing demonstrated that adequate drug levels were achieved. The most common drug-related adverse events were nausea, vomiting, fatigue, rash, pruritus, headache, diarrhea, dizziness, and sensory neuropathy, all of which were Grade I-II in severity. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. Laboratory adverse events were infrequent: one patient had Grade III anemia, and there were no Grade III changes in biochemistry. No significant QTc interval changes were seen. There were no responses in M protein levels. In conclusion, ZD6474 was well tolerated at a dose of 100 mg per day and achieved plasma levels predicted to inhibit VEGF signaling. However, this was not reflected in clinical benefit since none of the patients had a reduction in M protein.
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