The Early Inflammatory Response in a Mini–Cardiopulmonary Bypass System a Prospective Randomized Study
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OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the early systemic inflammatory response of the Resting Heart System (RHS; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN USA), a miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system, with two groups using a standard extracorporeal circulation system during on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. METHODS: A total of 60 consecutive patients requiring CABG were prospectively randomized to undergo on-pump CABG using conventional CPB without cardiotomy suction (group A), conventional CPB with cardiotomy suction (group B), or the RHS (group C). Blood samples were collected at five time points: immediately before CPB, 30 minutes into CPB, immediately at the end of CPB, 30 minutes post-CPB, and 1 hour post-CPB. Inflammation was analyzed by changes in (a) levels of plasma proteins, including inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α), chemokines (IL-8, monokine induced by interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, and interferon-inducible protein-10), and acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein and complement protein 3); (b) biochemical variables (cardiac troponin I, hematocrit, and immunoglobulin G); and (c) cell numbers (leukocytes, neutrophils, and thrombocytes). RESULTS: The RHS showed more delayed secretion of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-10, chemokines monokine induced by interferon-γ (P < 0.001); IL-8, and interferon-inducible protein-10; and complement protein 3 than conventional CPB systems did. Median thrombocyte numbers were higher in the RHS group. Levels of cardiac troponin I, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and IL-6 were lower in both the RHS and conventional CPB without suction than with suction. Levels of C-reactive protein and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, plus leukocyte and neutrophil numbers, were similar in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Medtronic RHS may induce less systemic inflammation than conventional CPB systems, particularly when cardiotomy suction was used, but it did not result in improved clinical benefit.
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