Antiangiogenic strategies have demonstrated efficacy in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Sorafenib is a novel multitargeted kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic activity. Gemcitabine has known activity against EOC. A phase 1 clinical trial of this combination suggested activity in ovarian cancer with no dose-limiting toxicity. This phase 2 study was designed to examine the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and sorafenib in patients with recurrent EOC.
Patients with recurrent EOC after platinum-based chemotherapy and who had subsequently received up to 3 prior chemotherapy regimens were eligible. Gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 intravenous [IV]) was administered weekly for 7 of 8 weeks in the first cycle, then weekly for 3 weeks of each subsequent 4-week cycle. Sorafenib (400 mg p.o. bid) was given continuously. The primary end point for this trial was objective response rate by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Secondary endpoints included Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) CA-125 response, time to progression, overall survival, and toxicity.
Forty-three patients were enrolled, and 33 completed at least 1 cycle. Two patients had a partial response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors objective response rate = 4.7%). Ten patients (23.3%) maintained response or stable disease for at least 6 months. GCIG CA-125 response was 27.9%. The median time to progression was 5.4 months, and the median overall survival was 13.0 months. Hematologic toxicity was common but manageable. The most common nonhematologic adverse events were hand-foot syndrome, fatigue, hypokalemia, and diarrhea.
This trial of gemcitabine and sorafenib in recurrent EOC did not meet its primary efficacy end point, but the combination was associated with encouraging rates of prolonged stable disease and CA-125 response.