Antibiotic resistance was examined in 462 Escherichia coli isolates from surface waters and fecal pollution sources around Hamilton, Ontario. Escherichia coli were resistant to the highest concentrations of each of the 14 antibiotics studied, although the prevalence of high resistance was mostly low. Two of 12 E. coli isolates from sewage in a CSO tank had multiple resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tetracycline above their clinical breakpoints. Antibiotic resistance was less prevalent in E. coli from bird feces than from municipal wastewater sources. A discriminant function calculated from antibiotic resistance data provided an average rate of correct classification of 68% for discriminating E. coli from bird and wastewater fecal pollution sources. The preliminary microbial source tracking results suggest that, at times, bird feces might be a more prominent contributor of E. coli to Bayfront Park beach waters than municipal wastewater sources.Key words: antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli, surface water, fecal pollution.