A Randomized Trial Comparing Omeprazole, Ranitidine, Cisapride, or Placebo in Helicobacter pylori Negative, Primary Care Patients with Dyspepsia: The CADET-HN Study
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BACKGROUND: The management of Helicobacter pylori negative patients with dyspepsia in primary care has not been studied in placebo-controlled studies. METHODS: H. pylori negative patients with dyspepsia symptoms of at least moderate severity (> or =4 on a seven-point Likert scale) were recruited from 35 centers. Patients were randomized to a 4-wk treatment of omeprazole 20 mg od, ranitidine 150 mg bid, cisapride 20 mg bid, or placebo, followed by on-demand therapy for an additional 5 months. Treatment success was defined as no or minimal symptoms (score < or = 2 out of 7), and was assessed after 4 wk and at 6 months. RESULTS: Five hundred and twelve patients were randomized and included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. At 4 wk, success rates (95% CI) were: omeprazole 51% (69/135; 43-60%), ranitidine 36% (50/139, 28-44%), cisapride 31% (32/105, 22-39%), and placebo 23% (31/133, 16-31%). Omeprazole was significantly better than all other treatments (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients who were responders at 4 wk and at 6 months was significantly greater for those receiving omeprazole 31% (42/135, 23-39%) compared with cisapride 13% (14/105, 7-20%), and placebo 14% (18/133, 8-20%) (p= 0.001), but not ranitidine 21% (29/139, 14-27%) (p= 0.053). The mean number of on-demand study tablets consumed and rescue antacid used was comparable across groups. Economic analysis showed a trade-off between superior efficacy and increased cost between omeprazole and ranitidine. CONCLUSION: Treatment with omeprazole provides superior symptom relief compared to ranitidine, cisapride, and placebo in the treatment of H. pylori negative primary care dyspepsia patients.