Associations of Initial Society for Fetal Urology Grades and Urinary Tract Dilatation Risk Groups with Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Isolated Prenatal Hydronephrosis
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PURPOSE: There are limited comparative data on the predictive value of the 2 most commonly used classification systems, that is SFU (Society for Fetal Urology) hydronephrosis grades and urinary tract dilatation risk groups, in regard to the future risk of surgical intervention and the development of febrile urinary tract infection. We explored this topic in infants with isolated hydronephrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After screening 938 patients with prenatal hydronephrosis from 2009 to 2016 we selected 322 patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction-like hydronephrosis for study. Hydronephrosis grades were prospectively collected at baseline, surgery and last followup. Gender, circumcision status, antibiotic prophylaxis and renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter were captured. The primary outcome was pyeloplasty and the development of febrile urinary tract infection. Comparative analyses between SFU grades/urinary tract dilatation groups and the primary outcome were performed with the Fisher exact and log rank tests. RESULTS: Mean ± SD age at presentation was 3.3 ± 2.6 months and mean followup was 22 ± 19 months. Pyeloplasty was performed in 32% of patients with SFU III/IV vs 31% with urinary tract dilatation 2/3. The rate of febrile urinary tract infection in patients with SFU III/IV was similar to that in those with urinary tract dilatation group 2/3 (8% vs 10%). Children with SFU III/IV showed a significantly higher rate of surgery than those with SFU I/II (32% vs 2%, p <0.01). Similar findings were seen when using urinary tract dilatation groups to compare patients at low risk (1) vs moderate/high risk (2/3). CONCLUSIONS: Both grading systems equally allowed for proper risk stratification and prediction of clinical outcomes based on baseline ultrasound. They correctly separated most infants who underwent surgery or in whom febrile urinary tract infection developed from those who could be treated nonsurgically. Use of the new urinary tract dilatation classification should not affect how families of children with isolated hydronephrosis are counseled regarding surgical intervention and the risk of febrile urinary tract infection.
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