Nine-year trends in achievement of risk factor goals in the US and European outpatients with cardiovascular disease
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BACKGROUND: Although control of major cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes) has been the centerpiece of guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, periodic surveys suggest adherence to recommendations and achievement of goals is poor. Few data are available in outpatients, and no studies describe trends in meeting clinical targets. METHODS: A survey of outpatients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors was conducted annually, with a unique cohort each year, and included medical history, clinical data, and pharmacologic therapies. Data from 1998 to 2006 in the United States, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Germany were analyzed for achievement of evidenced-based goals for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. RESULTS: Over 9 years, 102,318 patients were entered, with a mean age of 60 years, half were male, and each had at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor. In 1998, nearly half of patients in the United States were not at their target for blood pressure or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In Europe, <1 in 3 was at blood pressure goal, and a minority had low-density lipoprotein recorded. Only modest improvements were observed by 2006. Hemoglobin A(1c) levels improved from 2005 to 2006 in the United States and Europe, indicating improving glycemic control in these cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to guidelines in these outpatients was suboptimal and lower in Europe than in the United States. Increased adherence to evidence-based targets for the treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes is needed to achieve ideal cardiovascular prevention.
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