Hypotensive transfusion reactions can occur with blood products that are leukoreduced before storage
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BACKGROUND: Leukoreduction before storage, rather than bedside white blood cell filtration, is recommended to prevent hypotensive transfusion reactions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Investigation of hypotensive transfusion reactions during radical prostatectomy in two patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. In Patient A, hypotension occurred during the transfusion of each of the following blood products: 2 units of autologous blood deposited and leukoreduced (LR) before storage; 3 units of allogeneic red cells LR before storage; and 2 units of non-LR acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) whole blood. When each of the transfusions was stopped, the blood pressure recovered. In Patient B, hypotension occurred during the transfusion of non-LR ANH whole blood. All implicated units were administered rapidly using a blood infuser at 37 degrees C. Bradykinin (BK) and des-Arg9-BK formation and degradation and the activity of kinin-degrading metallopeptidases were measured in plasma samples from both patients. RESULTS: Degradation of des-Arg9-BK was severely impaired and the activity of aminopeptidase P severely reduced in Patient A, but not in Patient B. BK degradation was mildly impaired in both patients. CONCLUSION: Hypotensive reactions can occur with blood products that are LR before storage and non-LR ANH. An inherent defect in the metabolism of kinins may be a risk factor for the development of hypotensive transfusion reactions.
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