Systematic review of clinical features of suspected prostate cancer in primary care.
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OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature and provide an update and integration of existing peer-reviewed guidelines with recent systematic reviews and with primary studies related to the early recognition and management of prostate cancer in primary care. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for relevant articles. The quality of the evidence to support existing guideline recommendations and the consistency of recommendations with updated evidence were assessed. Applicability in a Canadian primary care setting was also evaluated. STUDY SELECTION: All studies conducted in the primary care setting that provided information on clinical features predictive of prostate cancer were included. Also, studies that assessed the accuracy of nomograms to predict prostate cancer were reviewed. SYNTHESIS: The findings suggest that lower urinary tract symptoms are not highly predictive of prostate cancer. However, evidence suggests that FPs might be good at discriminating between patients with and without prostate cancer using digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen testing. Nomograms might also be useful in assessing patients for aggressive prostate cancers. CONCLUSION: The results of this review can be used to inform recommendations for referral for suspected prostate cancer in the primary care setting. They could also inform development of prostate cancer diagnostic assessment programs.
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