Is mode of delivery associated with postpartum depression at 6 weeks: a prospective cohort study
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between delivery mode and postpartum depression at 6 weeks following hospital discharge. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Eleven hospitals in Ontario, Canada. SAMPLE: A total of 2560 women ≥16 years of age who delivered singleton, live infants at term. METHODS: Women completed a questionnaire in hospital and 74% (n = 1897) participated in a structured telephone interview 6 weeks after discharge. Additional data were extracted from labour and delivery records. Generalised estimating equations (GEEs) were used to investigate factors associated with postpartum depression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Women were screened for depression at 6 weeks following hospital discharge using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A score of ≥12 on the EPDS was used as a measure of the primary outcome, depression. RESULTS: Mode of delivery was not independently associated with postpartum depression, and did not factor into the main-effects model. The multivariable analysis identified 11 predictor variables for depression: young maternal age (OR 5.27; 95% CI 2.73-10.15); maternal hospital readmission (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.46-6.24); non-initiation of breastfeeding (OR 2.02; 95% CI 0.99-4.11); good, fair, or poor self-reported postpartum health (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.19-2.80); urinary incontinence (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.06-3.03); multiparity (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.22-2.08); low mental health functioning (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.15-1.25); low subjective social status (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.02-1.33); high number of unmet learning needs in hospital (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.22); low social support (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.09); and low physical health functioning (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.003-1.055). An exploratory interaction model revealed that caesarean section was associated with higher odds of becoming depressed in Canadian-born women, but that in women born outside of Canada it was associated with a lower risk of becoming depressed. CONCLUSIONS: Delivery mode had no significant impact on the development of postpartum depression in the main-effects model. However, it may interact with place of birth and other unmeasured factors to create a risk for depression.
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