Background: Few studies have assessed the effect of prothrombotic blood abnormalities on the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Methods: We studied postmenopausal women with suspected DVT in whom HRT use and prothrombotic blood abnormalities were sought. Cases had unprovoked DVT and controls had no DVT and without DVT risk factors. The risk of DVT was determined in women with and without prothrombotic abnormalities. Results: A total of 510 postmenopausal women with suspected DVT were assessed; 57 cases and 283 controls were identified. Compared to HRT, nonusers without the factor V Leiden mutation, the risk of DVT was increased in estrogen-progestin HRT users (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-8.6) and in nonusers with the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 5.3; 1.9-15.4) and appears multiplied in users of estrogen-progestin HRT with the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 17.1; 3.7-78). Compared to HRT, nonusers with normal factor VIII, the risk of DVT was increased in estrogen-progestin HRT users with normal factor VIII (OR, 2.8; 1.0-7.9) and in HRT nonusers with the highest factor VIII quartile (OR, 6.0; 2.1-17), and appears to be multiplied in women who are users of estrogen-progestin HRT with the highest factor VIII quartile (OR, 17.0; 3.6-80). Conclusions: In postmenopausal women who are estrogen-progestin HRT users, the presence of the factor V Leiden mutation or an elevated factor VIII level appears to have a multiplicative effect on their overall risk of DVT, increasing it 17-fold compared to women without these blood abnormalities who are HRT nonusers.