Bleeding in Cardiac Surgery: Its Prevention and Treatment—an Evidence-Based Review
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Expected and unexpected bleeding occur frequently in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Bleeding after cardiac surgery can be broadly divided into two groups: surgical (unrecognized bleeding vessel, anastomosis, or other suture line) or nonsurgical bleeding (caused by coagulopathy). Factors influencing both surgical and nonsurgical bleeding can be further broken down into those occurring preoperatively and those that occur intraoperatively and postoperatively. A thorough understanding of these factors is necessary to reduce bleeding. This is a desirable clinical goal, because excessive bleeding is associated with adverse outcomes.
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