Influence of the Tissue Microenvironment on Toll-Like Receptor Expression by CD11c+ Antigen-Presenting Cells Isolated from Mucosal Tissues
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It is recognized that functional activities of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in mucosal tissue sites differ from those of systemic APCs; however, it is unknown whether there are further differences between APC populations residing in different mucosal sites. In this study, we directly compared murine CD11c+ APCs isolated from colon, lung, and spleen and found that APCs isolated from these tissues differ considerably in Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and responses to in vitro TLR ligand stimulation. We also provide evidence that tissue microenvironments dictate distinct patterns of TLR expression by CD11c+ APCs in different mucosal tissues. Moreover, CD11c+ cells isolated from different tissues have varied capacities to induce the development of T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, or regulatory CD4+ T cells. Thus, unique tissue microenvironments have a significant influence on determining TLR expression by CD11c+ cells that migrate to and reside in each mucosal tissue and are likely to modulate their functional activities.
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