Optimization of Spray Drying Conditions for Yield, Particle Size and Biological Activity of Thermally Stable Viral Vectors
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PURPOSE: This work examines the relevance of viral activity in the optimization of spray drying process parameters for the development of thermally stable vaccine powders. In some instances, the actual active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is not included in the process optimization as it is deemed too costly to use until the final selection of operating conditions, however, that approach is inappropriate for highly labile biopharmaceutics. We investigate the effects of spray drying parameters on i) yield, ii) particle size and iii) viral vector activity of a mannitol/dextran encapsulated recombinant human type 5 adenoviral vector vaccine, to demonstrate the effects and magnitude of each effect on the three responses, and further show that the API must be included earlier in the optimization. METHODS: A design of experiments approach was used with response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize parameters including inlet temperature, spray gas flow rate, liquid feed rate and solute concentration in the feed. RESULTS: In general, good conditions for maintaining viral activity led to reduced yield and fewer particles of the desired size. Within the range of parameters tested, the yield varied from 50 to 90%, the percentage of ideally size particles was 10-50%, and the viral vector titre loss was 0.25-4.0 log loss. CONCLUSIONS: RSM indicates that the most significant spray drying parameters are the inlet temperature and spray gas flow rate. It was not possible to optimize all three output variables with one set of parameters, indicating that there will only be one dominant criteria for processing which in the case of viral vaccines will likely be viral vector activity.
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