Isoprostanes are generated during periods of oxidative stress, which characterize diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. They also elicit functional responses and may therefore contribute to the pathology of these diseases. We set out to examine the effects of isoprostanes on airway responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation. Muscle bath techniques were employed using isolated bovine tracheal smooth muscle. 8-Isoprostaglandin E2 (8-iso-PGE2) increased tone directly on its own, although the magnitude of this response, even at the highest concentration tested, was only a fraction of that evoked by KCl or carbachol. More importantly, though, pretreatment of the tissues with 8-iso-PGE2 (10 μM) markedly augmented responses to submaximal and even subthreshold concentrations of KCl, carbachol, or histamine, whereas maximal responses to these agents were unaffected by the isoprostane. The augmentative effect on cholinergic responsiveness was mimicked by PGE2 (0.1 μM) and by the FP agonists PGF2 (0.1 μM) and fluprostenol (0.1 μM), but not by the EP3 agonist sulprostone (0.1 μM) or the TP agonist U-46619 (0.1 μM). Antagonists of EP1 receptors (AH-6809 and SC-19920, 10 μM) and TP receptors (ICI-192605, 1 μM) had no effect on 8-iso-PGE2-induced augmentation of cholinergic responsiveness. We conclude that 8-iso-PGE2 induces nonspecific airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness through a non-TP non-EP prostanoid receptor.