Diabetic retinopathy at the Yaoundé Central Hospital in Cameroon: epidemiology and angiographic findings.
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We carried out a cross-sectional analytical survey using data from patients who had done Fluorescein Angiography at the Yaounde Central Hospital Diabetic Retinopathy Prevention and Management Project between October 2007 and January 2010 to identify the risk factors, incidence and severity of different types of diabetic retinopathy. Data from 239 males (57.0%) and 180 females (43.0%) with diabetic retinopathy were included. Their mean age was 58.2 years. A majority of them were living with type II diabetes (96.2%). The mean duration of diabetes was 8.2 years. About sixty percent had both diabetes and hypertension. The average level of glycated haemoglobin was 9.72% (range 6-17.7%). Amongst the 419 patients with diabetic retinopathy, 292(69.7%) had non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. One hundred and twelve (26.7%) of those with proliferative diabetic retinopathy had a formal indication for laser photocoagulation. Fifteen patients (3.6%) presented with complicated forms of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic maculopathy was present in 30 patients (7.2%). Diabetic retinopathy is a frequent complication of diabetes in our setting which stems from inadequate emphasis on preventive measures. The technical requirements for managing some of the existing complications are still unavailable. Fluorescein Angiography is an important diagnostic tool which should be popularized.
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