The HOPE (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation) Study: the design of a large, simple randomized trial of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril) and vitamin E in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. The HOPE study investigators.
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OBJECTIVE: To describe the design of the HOPE (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation) study. DESIGN: Description of the key design features of HOPE, a large, simple randomized trial of two widely applicable treatments--ramipril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; and vitamin E, a naturally occurring antioxidant vitamin--in the prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. SETTING: Two-hundred and sixty-seven hospitals, physician offices and clinics in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Europe and South America. PATIENTS: Over 9000 women and men aged 55 years and above at high risk for cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke were recruited over 18 months. INTERVENTIONS: A 2X2 factorial design with ramipril and vitamin E with follow-up for up to four years. CONCLUSIONS: HOPE will be one of the largest trials of two new interventions to prevent myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death in high risk patients. The results of HOPE will have direct public health impact and are likely to be readily incorporated into clinical practice. Key design features of HOPE are inclusion of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease, inclusion of a substantial proportion of patients with diabetes (36%) and women (27%), and detailed substudies to provide data on mechanisms of benefit.
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