Spin-Polarized Conceptual Density Functional Theory from the Convex Hull
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We present a new, nonarbitrary, internally consistent, and unambiguous framework for spin-polarized conceptual density-functional theory (SP-DFT). We explicitly characterize the convex hull of energy, as a function of the number of electrons and their spin, as the only accessible ground states in spin-polarized density functional theory. Then, we construct continuous linear and quadratic models for the energy. The nondifferentiable linear model exactly captures the simplicial geometry of the complex hull about the point of interest and gives exact representations for the conceptual DFT reactivity indicators. The continuous quadratic energy model is the paraboloid of maximum curvature, which most tightly encloses the point of interest and neighboring vertices. The quadratic model is invariant to the choice of coordinate system (i.e., {N, S} vs {Nα, Nβ}) and reduces to a sensible formulation of spin-free conceptual DFT in the appropriate limit. Using the quadratic model, we generalize the Parr functions {P+(r), P-(r)} (and their derivatives with respect to number of electrons) to this new spin-polarized framework, integrating the Parr function concept into the context of (spin-polarized) conceptual DFT, and extending it to include higher-order effects.