Accuracy of an Artificial Intelligence Chatbot’s Interpretation of Clinical Ophthalmic Images Journal Articles uri icon

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  • ImportanceOphthalmology is reliant on effective interpretation of multimodal imaging to ensure diagnostic accuracy. The new ability of ChatGPT-4 (OpenAI) to interpret ophthalmic images has not yet been explored.ObjectiveTo evaluate the performance of the novel release of an artificial intelligence chatbot that is capable of processing imaging data.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsThis cross-sectional study used a publicly available dataset of ophthalmic cases from OCTCases, a medical education platform based out of the Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences at the University of Toronto, with accompanying clinical multimodal imaging and multiple-choice questions. Across 137 available cases, 136 contained multiple-choice questions (99%).ExposuresThe chatbot answered questions requiring multimodal input from October 16 to October 23, 2023.Main Outcomes and MeasuresThe primary outcome was the accuracy of the chatbot in answering multiple-choice questions pertaining to image recognition in ophthalmic cases, measured as the proportion of correct responses. χ2 Tests were conducted to compare the proportion of correct responses across different ophthalmic subspecialties.ResultsA total of 429 multiple-choice questions from 136 ophthalmic cases and 448 images were included in the analysis. The chatbot answered 299 of multiple-choice questions correctly across all cases (70%). The chatbot’s performance was better on retina questions than neuro-ophthalmology questions (77% vs 58%; difference = 18%; 95% CI, 7.5%-29.4%; χ21 = 11.4; P < .001). The chatbot achieved a better performance on nonimage–based questions compared with image-based questions (82% vs 65%; difference = 17%; 95% CI, 7.8%-25.1%; χ21 = 12.2; P < .001).The chatbot performed best on questions in the retina category (77% correct) and poorest in the neuro-ophthalmology category (58% correct). The chatbot demonstrated intermediate performance on questions from the ocular oncology (72% correct), pediatric ophthalmology (68% correct), uveitis (67% correct), and glaucoma (61% correct) categories.Conclusions and RelevanceIn this study, the recent version of the chatbot accurately responded to approximately two-thirds of multiple-choice questions pertaining to ophthalmic cases based on imaging interpretation. The multimodal chatbot performed better on questions that did not rely on the interpretation of imaging modalities. As the use of multimodal chatbots becomes increasingly widespread, it is imperative to stress their appropriate integration within medical contexts.


  • Mihalache, Andrew
  • Huang, Ryan S
  • Popovic, Marko M
  • Patil, Nikhil S
  • Pandya, Bhadra U
  • Shor, Reut
  • Pereira, Austin
  • Kwok, Jason M
  • Yan, Peng
  • Wong, David
  • Kertes, Peter J
  • Muni, Rajeev H

publication date

  • April 1, 2024