Understanding the use and outcomes of high-flow nasal cannula among infants admitted to Canadian hospitals with bronchiolitis (CanFLO): a protocol for a multicentre, retrospective cohort study Journal Articles uri icon

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  • IntroductionBronchiolitis is the most common viral lower respiratory tract infection in children under 2 years of age. Respiratory support with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used in this patient population with limited understanding of the patients most likely to benefit and considerable practice variability of use. This study aims to understand the factors associated with failure of HFNC support among patients with bronchiolitis and to describe the current practice variations of HFNC use in patients with bronchiolitis in Canadian hospitals including fluid management and parameters to initiate, escalate and discontinue HFNC support.Methods and analysisThis is a multicentre retrospective cohort study including hospitalised patients aged 0–24 months with bronchiolitis requiring support with HFNC between January 2017 and December 2021. Clinical data will be collected from patient medical records from Canadian hospitals (n=12), including academic and community centres. HFNC failure will be defined as the need for escalation to non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. Factors associated with HFNC failure will be analysed using logistic regression. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe practice variations of HFNC utilisation and management.Ethics and disseminationApproval from the Research Ethics Boards (REBs) has been obtained for each participating study site prior to onset of data collection including Clinical Trials Ontario for all Ontario hospital sites and REBs from British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Stollery Children’s Hospital, Montreal Children’s Hospital and CHU Sainte-Justine. Study results will be disseminated through presentation at national/international conferences and publication in high-impact, peer-reviewed journals.


  • D’Alessandro, Michelle
  • Fricano, Chiara
  • Abdulsatar, Farah
  • Bechard, Nicole
  • Brar, Jagraj Singh
  • Drouin, Olivier
  • Foulds, Jessica L
  • Giglia, Lucia
  • Gill, Peter J
  • Gupta, Ronish
  • Li, Patricia
  • McConnery, Jason
  • Metcalf, Jason
  • Sakran, Mahmoud
  • Seaton, Claire
  • Sehgal, Anupam
  • Sirizzotti, Natalie
  • Mbuagbaw, Lawrence
  • Wahi, Gita

publication date

  • February 2024