The importance of animal specificity in animal experimentation, part I: Anatomy in relation to pediatric urology Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Why and when is animal experimentation relevant? The answer to this question depends on the research question. In this short educational article we aim to raise awareness of the importance of formulating a very specific research question before choosing an animal species. An awareness of anatomical and physiological differences vis-a-vis similarities between species, will increase the potential for obtaining data that is relevant for translation to human conditions.


  • Fossum, Magdalena
  • Kaefer, Martin
  • Bagli, Darius
  • Harper, Luke
  • Herbst, Katherine W
  • Nelson, Caleb P
  • Braga, Luis
  • Nieuwhof-Leppink, Anka
  • Kalfa, Nicolas
  • Garriboli, Massimo
  • Cascio, Salvatore

publication date

  • April 2024