Successful management of intraventricular rupture of pyogenic brain abscess (IVROBA): Systematic review and illustrative case
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OBJECTIVES: Intraventricular rupture of brain abscess (IVROBA) is one of the most dreaded complications of pyogenic brain abscess due to its high mortality rate. Because of its relative infrequency and poor outcome, the optimal management of this condition remains to be determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the case of a 5-year old female with a presumptive diagnosis of IVROBA who was discharged with good neurologic outcome after completing intravenous antibiotic treatment and undergoing insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) and later, a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. We also performed a systematic review of the SCOPUS and PubMed databases for case reports and series documenting patients who survived after undergoing treatment for IVROBA. RESULTS: A total of 24 cases of IVROBA survivors were reported in the literature, including the present case. The median age was 48.5 years (range: 5-71), with a male predilection (3:1). The most common location of the brain abscesses was temporal while the most common route of spread was hematogenous. Surgery was performed in 92% of cases, with EVD being the most common surgical procedure. Twenty nine percent of cases required a VP shunt. The duration of systemic antibiotic treatment ranged from 31 to 180 days (median: 56 days) while intraventricular antibiotics were given for 8-42 days (median: 14 days). CONCLUSION: The management of IVROBA in this series varied widely, with surgery playing an important role. Although IVROBA is still a devastating complication of intracranial abscess, a good neurologic outcome may still be possible with treatment.
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